How to make a Beehive Box – A Step by Step Guide

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Pick the Correct Wood

Wood YardWe went to our local lumber yard to pick up Some beautiful Macrocarpa wood to make some more kiwimana Bee Hives. The Macrocarpa tree is a is a species of cypress which a native of California. I thought we might write about how we build bee hives and show you the process involved.

The first step is selecting the correct wood. We need to select wood that doesn’t have knots, where joints will go and make sure the wood is straight. We use Macrocarpa as it is naturally protected from the elements. Never use treated timber inside your colonies.

Planing Wood

Planing Wood
Planing Wood

The next step is planing, we plane the wood ourselves to ensure all the pieces are the same thickness. This ensures that joints don’t have any gaps. Which is important to keep out the wind. And reduces places for the evil wax moth to lay their eggs.

Cutting out the main parts

Cutting Main Parts
Cutting Main Parts

The two main parts of a hive are the sides and the front/back. We cut the wood to standard sizes for these. The length of these are 405 mm for the front/Back and 485 mm for the sides.

Getting the height correct, we make hives at full depth (238 mm) three quarter sized (185 mm) and half depth (133 mm). It’s important that all parts of the hives are the same height. So you have no gaps when used with other boxes.

You can find the official New Zealand Bee Hive box sizes on this page from the Wellington Bee Club

Different parts of the Hive Box
Different parts of the Hive Box

Being aware of direction of the Heartwood

When wood warps, it will bend away from the heartwood. If the heartwood is facing the inside of the hive box, any warping can cause the corners of the board to pull the screws or nails out. Which could lead to openings in the hive box and a possible entry point for pests, such a German wasps (Yellow Jackets).

Direction to Heartwood should also be facing out the world
Direction to Heartwood should also be facing out the world
Gary Moment 🙂 : Think of it like this, the bees love should also be pointing to your heart (Outside the Hive Box).

Branding the BeeHive Boxes

We add a kiwi onto our boxes using a brand. This is the old fasion branding system that involves lighting a hot fire to heat up the brand. One day we hope to buy on of those fancy electric ones.

Cutting the Box Handles

Cutting the handles. A handle is important on a hive box to make it easier to lift the box. A full sized box can weigh as much as 40 kg when full of honey. We use a plunge or drop saw to cut the handles.

Cutting Handles
Cutting Handles
Finished Handle
Finished Handle

Cutting the Side and Top Slots

Side Joints
Side Joints

The sides and the frame groves are the next task, the sides grooves form one half of the rabbet joint that the sides are attached too. The frames groves are what the frames sit on.

The measurements for the joints are 10 mm and the frame grove is 13 mm.

Assembling the Hive Box

Galvanised screws
Galvanised screws

The next step is the assembly, it’s important that all parts of the box are even. The boxes need to fit with the other parts of a standard langstroths hives. We use galvanised screws. Which we feel makes them look nicer and should provide years of rust free life.
Assembling the BeeHive Box

Screws maybe more expensive than nails. Using screws makes it easier to disassemble the boxes in the future, if you need to perform a repair. Wouldn’t it be crazy to have to throw away a box, because one part is damaged or rotten?

Painting the Beehive Boxs

Paiting Hives
Painting Hives

The final step in the oiling of the boxed to provide another layer of protection we use boiled linseed oil. This brings out the different shapes of the wood grain. Which provides a visual guide for the bees. Having all your boxed one colour is akin to living in an block of houses that all look the same. This can cause bees to drift to other hives. Drifting can spread dieases throughout your apiary or lead too some hives having a lower population of field bees.

Here’s is what the finished product looks like:-

Full Sized Hive Box

You can buy our boxes here:-

$40.50$48.50Read more

Well I hope you found this useful in making Beehive Boxes. Do you make your own boxes? What tricks do you use to make them?

16 thoughts on “How to make a Beehive Box – A Step by Step Guide

  1. Angus Cathcart says:

    Smart looking boxes Gary . The vaporiser is working well .takes longer to heat up than the franklin one ,more alloy perhaps ? Did a test sample first to check the time to vaporise .
    Keep up the good work

    • Gary Fawcett says:

      Hi Angus,

      Thanks for comments, we love our boxes. Will be painting more this weekend, if the weather is good.

      RE: Vaporizer – Yep may take slightly longer, different design from the Franklin one. We hope much more solid and less prone to tip overs. Hope your treatments go well, would love if you could add a review to the product page for us Angus.



    • Gary Fawcett says:

      Hi Mac,

      Thanks for the message, Hmmm I would say ‘no’.

      I can see them coming apart with the rain? You might also want to check what is used to bond the wood together, and that it would leach into the other layers with rain?

      I have seen people use it for NUC boxes, but never hive boxes?


    • Margaret Groot says:

      Hi Amos, We use boiled linseed oil – thin and dries in hours on a warm hot day, you can also use raw linseed oil which is thicker to apply and takes a few days to dry. Always paint on externally, never inside the boxes and we don’t oil any areas which the bees work on exterior surfaces. Thanks for your question Amos and for being part of the kiwimana buzz… Regards, Margaret and Gary

  2. Kris Edgington says:

    Afternoon, I have just read your building a box page and was wondering is the full depth measurement of 405 x 485mm an internal measurement? if not what is the thickness of your timber. Cheers

  3. Len Hill says:

    Hi, I’ve always found it to be an advantage to protect the joints before assembly, just as an added bit of waterproofing for the joint. I’ve always just used an oil based undercoat paint and it seems to stop any rot developing in there.

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